Light is one of the three elements essential to plant development. It is the basis of an essential mechanism : Photosynthesis.
Photosynthesis is one of the most important processes
of nature. Without it, plants could not grow !
By definition, photosynthesis is the process
by which the tree or plant is nourished by its leaves.
Indeed, during photosynthesis, plants capture sunlight
and carbon dioxide (CO2 from the air) through their leaves and absorb
water (and nutrients) by their roots. The leaves are used as the energy
from the sun to turn water and carbon dioxide (CO2) into chemical
energy (sugar or glucose), while releasing oxygen as shown by the
following equation :
Light + CO2 -> Oxygen + Glucose
Glucose then leaves the leaf and is transported throughout the plant to feed.
The photosynthetic pigments located on the main leaves are chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids. These pigments responsible for photosynthesis absorb certain wavelengths more efficiently than others.
The graph shows the absorption spectra of both chlorophylls
a and b. We note therefore that all plants absorb strongly
at wavelengths around 440 nm equal to (<=> Color blue) and 650
nm (<=> color red).
Note : The color you see is the color reflected by the pigment. So the green leaves appear by what chlorophylls a and b absorb blue and red and reflects green.
Artificial light is never as good as the sunlight. We can produce a light intensity greater than the sun by reducing the distance between the bulbs and plants, but has yet invented a light bulb that has all the colors of the spectrum.
However, even if the horticultural spectrum lamps is
not identical to that of the sun, some lamps emit wavelengths
very conducive to plant growth.
• Growth : The wavelengths Blue
provide a white light such as that found in the spring. This wavelength
can be provided by Blue neon Horticulture (cool white) lamps Envirolyte
(MG cool white) and horticultural lights to High Pressure
Metal Halide (MH). However, only the lamp High Pressure Metal
Halide (MH ) provide sufficient intensity for optimal growth on your
• Flowers : The wavelengths Rouge
provide a yellow light like that found in summer. This wavelength
can be provided by Red neon Horticulture (warm white), lamps Envirolyte
(MG warm white) and High Pressure Sodium lamps Horticulture
(HPS). However, only the lamp High Pressure Sodium (HPS)
provide sufficient intensity to ensure maximum flowering your plant.
NB : If, conversely, you grow your plants under red wavelengths (HPS), they will stretch in length with a thin shaft and a too large gap between the internodes: This is the phenomenon the erosion of the plant ! Indeed, this is explained by the fact that the plant looks for blue wavelengths but never get enough of.
It is therefore important to respect the needs of the plant as an ideal growth prepares necessarily better flowering.
As the wavelengths, plants have specific needs according
to their stage of development :
• In the growing
cycle of lighting should be 18 H / 24
H (either during the vegetative stage after germination
(stage pre growth) or during the recovery phase of the cuttings, although
they have were taken from flowering plants).
• In bloom,
the light cycle should be 12 H / 24
H (for maximum flowering, it is essential to adhere
strictly to the 12-hour cycle of light and 12 hours of total darkness
and continuous because the plants memorize the duration of the night
because their life cycle).
Cultured under artificial light, you have to
decide on the duration of the growth cycle (18 H / 24 H)
and when to move into the flowering cycle (12 H /
24 H). It is therefore not necessary to observe the cycle of growth
that naturally follows the plant in natural light. It is far too long
for indoor growing, the plants would be too large and flowering is
not uniform and compact. Paradoxically, you would not get the maximum
It is better to make small flowering plants,
you'll save time, space and above each plant receives enough light
for maximum flowering. When grown under light, it must force
the bloom going fast enough to cycle 12 H / 24 H (once
the plant reaches about twenty centimeters).
The plants eventually reach 50 to 80 cm (depending on variety) during the productive phase of flowering; what is the ideal size for a uniform quality of the bottom of the plant to its summit.
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