The Light

 

Light is one of the three elements essential to plant development. It is the basis of an essential mechanism : Photosynthesis.

 

The mechanism of photosynthesis :

Photosynthesis is one of the most important processes of nature. Without it, plants could not grow !

By definition, photosynthesis is the process by which the tree or plant is nourished by its leaves.

Indeed, during photosynthesis, plants capture sunlight and carbon dioxide (CO2 from the air) through their leaves and absorb water (and nutrients) by their roots. The leaves are used as the energy from the sun to turn water and carbon dioxide (CO2) into chemical energy (sugar or glucose), while releasing oxygen as shown by the following equation :

Water + Light + CO2 -> Oxygen + Glucose

Glucose then leaves the leaf and is transported throughout the plant to feed.

 

The photosynthetic pigments located on the main leaves are chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b and carotenoids. These pigments responsible for photosynthesis absorb certain wavelengths more efficiently than others.

 

spectre-lumiere

The graph shows the absorption spectra of both chlorophylls a and b. We note therefore that all plants absorb strongly at wavelengths around 440 nm equal to (<=> Color blue) and 650 nm (<=> color red).

Note : The color you see is the color reflected by the pigment. So the green leaves appear by what chlorophylls a and b absorb blue and red and reflects green.


The spectrum of light :

 

Artificial light is never as good as the sunlight. We can produce a light intensity greater than the sun by reducing the distance between the bulbs and plants, but has yet invented a light bulb that has all the colors of the spectrum.

However, even if the horticultural spectrum lamps is not identical to that of the sun, some lamps emit wavelengths very conducive to plant growth.

As mentioned in the preceding paragraph, the plants need two kinds of different wavelengths depending on their stage of development (Growth / Bloom). Therefore, the choice of a suitable light source is essential. This must return the wavelengths necessary for photosynthesis and must also provide the amount of light needed in each stage of plant development.

Growth : The wavelengths Blue provide a white light such as that found in the spring. This wavelength can be provided by Blue neon Horticulture (cool white) lamps Envirolyte (MG cool white) and horticultural lights to High Pressure Metal Halide (MH). However, only the lamp High Pressure Metal Halide (MH ) provide sufficient intensity for optimal growth on your plant.

Flowers : The wavelengths Rouge provide a yellow light like that found in summer. This wavelength can be provided by Red neon Horticulture (warm white), lamps Envirolyte (MG warm white) and High Pressure Sodium lamps Horticulture (HPS). However, only the lamp High Pressure Sodium (HPS) provide sufficient intensity to ensure maximum flowering your plant.

NB : If, conversely, you grow your plants under red wavelengths (HPS), they will stretch in length with a thin shaft and a too large gap between the internodes: This is the phenomenon the erosion of the plant ! Indeed, this is explained by the fact that the plant looks for blue wavelengths but never get enough of.

It is therefore important to respect the needs of the plant as an ideal growth prepares necessarily better flowering.


The light cycles :

As the wavelengths, plants have specific needs according to their stage of development :

In the growing cycle of lighting should be 18 H / 24 H (either during the vegetative stage after germination (stage pre growth) or during the recovery phase of the cuttings, although they have were taken from flowering plants).

In bloom, the light cycle should be 12 H / 24 H (for maximum flowering, it is essential to adhere strictly to the 12-hour cycle of light and 12 hours of total darkness and continuous because the plants memorize the duration of the night because their life cycle).

To meet these requirements easily, just use a programmer which must be of good quality to support the initiation of high-pressure lamps.

Cultured under artificial light, you have to decide on the duration of the growth cycle (18 H / 24 H) and when to move into the flowering cycle (12 H / 24 H). It is therefore not necessary to observe the cycle of growth that naturally follows the plant in natural light. It is far too long for indoor growing, the plants would be too large and flowering is not uniform and compact. Paradoxically, you would not get the maximum return.

It is better to make small flowering plants, you'll save time, space and above each plant receives enough light for maximum flowering. When grown under light, it must force the bloom going fast enough to cycle 12 H / 24 H (once the plant reaches about twenty centimeters).

This may seem small to trigger flowering, but one must bear in mind that plants do not react instantly to changes in the cycle, they continue to grow for 2 to 3 weeks of flowering cycle (or pre flowering) .

The plants eventually reach 50 to 80 cm (depending on variety) during the productive phase of flowering; what is the ideal size for a uniform quality of the bottom of the plant to its summit.

 

eclairage-hps

 
 
 


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